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·Synthetic cannabinoids: These substances produce effects similar to those of THC, the principal psychoactive component in cannabis. Synthetic cannabinoids are often laced with herbal products and sold as a spice. Street names: "K2", "Kronic" and others.
·Synthetic cathinones: These are analogues/derivatives of the internationally controlled substance cathinone, one of the active components of the khat plant. They generally have a stimulant effect and include frequently reported NPS, such as mephedrone and MDPV (Methylenedioxypyrovalerone).
·Ketamine: A human and veterinary anesthetic which acts as a stimulant at low doses and a hallucinogen at high doses. It is one of the most widespread NPS in Asia.
·Phenethylamines: This group contains substances related to amphetamine and methamphetamine. They generally produce stimulant effects. However, modification of these compounds can lead to potent hallucinogens.
·Piperazines: These substances are frequently sold as 'ecstasy' due to their stimulant properties. The most commonly reported members of this group are benzylpiperazine and mCPP (meta-Chlorophenylpiperazine).
·Plant-based substances: This group includes plants with psychoactive properties. The most frequently reported are: Kratom, a plant indigenous to Southeast Asia that acts as a stimulant at low doses and a sedative at high doses; Salvia divinorum, a plant indigenous to Mexico with hallucinogenic effects; Khat (Catha edulis), a plant native to the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The leaves of the plant are chewed, resulting in the release of the stimulants cathinone and cathine.
·Other substances: Such as aminoindanes (stimulants), phencyclidine-type substances (hallucinogens) and tryptamines (hallucinogens).
·Source: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime