Not so black and white
Updated: 2013-04-05 07:46
By Mark Graham (China Daily)
Sarah Bexell says the panda is a conservation icon that conveys hope for humans. Provided to China Daily
The life of pandas is not as clear cut as many people think, says the co-author of a new book on the animals
Giant panda expert Sarah Bexell sets out to debunk a few myths about China's most iconic animal in a new book, including the general perception that they are lazy and sexually shy.
The American is the co-author of Giant Pandas, Born Survivors, a serious but highly entertaining work on the severely endangered species. It is a joint project with her colleague, Chengdu Panda Base Director Zhang Zhihe, who has a spectacular library of panda images, many of them showcased for the first time in the book.
Bexell first went to study pandas at the base almost 14 years ago and became totally mesmerized by the animals, returning for long spells every year to observe them at close quarters.
With her punchy text and Zhang's fabulous photographs, Giant Pandas, Born Survivors, is likely to be the seminal English-language work on the fast-dwindling animals. The tome endeavors to set the record straight on panda-breeding habits, in captivity and in the wild, and help highlight how quickly the population is declining.
According to Bexell, the most recent census estimated there were some 1,600 animals left in the wild, mostly around the mountainous regions of southwestern Chengdu province, with some 300 in captivity.
"The giant panda is a conservation icon," she says. "If we can't save pandas, what hope can we have for the world? I think this is the first book that says 'this is it guys, if we can't save the animal we all profess to love, what hope is there for us.' We are trying to lay it on the line, pointing out that it is now or never.
Bexell first came to China to work with pandas in 1999 and fell in love with them.
"You get the chance to bond when you see them 10 hours a day, you start seeing what they are thinking and why they do what they do."
Bexell is serious and sincere about her work but she is far from a stuffy scientist. In person she is jaunty and affable, with a loud and unaffected laugh. Her open personality is reflected in the book's text: fascinating facts are presented in a chatty way, including a section devoted to the sex life of giant pandas.
The animals are, as the world knows, famously reluctant to breed when in captivity, meaning artificial insemination techniques have to be employed. Few have seen them mating in the wild but, according to Bexell, they go through an elaborate ritual, which involves the female cooing and chirping to attract male admirers who, in turn, scrap viciously for the privilege of becoming her lover.
Says Bexell: "When a female goes into estrus she goes to a higher area, a tree or a cliff, and then begins to vocalize and males congregate around her and fight for her. This can sometimes last for days and then whoever wins gets to mate with her first.
"After he has mated with her and wandered away some of the losers might be lurking around and she might mate with them as well. It is very aggressive; you can tell the old males, they have scars like adult male lions. We are fairly certain that the females breed with different males every time she might never see again.
"It's a myth that they don't breed well. When they are in captivity they can't go through their mating rituals, it happens with many animals. But in the wild, they are very proficient breeders or they would have become extinct a long time ago. They have been around for 8 million years. The earlier forms of pandas were smaller and more petite; they have gotten bigger over time."
Another widely held misconception is that pandas are bone-idle creatures, just lolling around all day, snacking on the odd piece of bamboo. According to Bexell they are not in the least bit indolent, they just need ample rest after expending tremendous amounts of energy on processing their favorite bamboo food. Hungry pandas have to chomp through the outer layer of bamboo before they can reach the softer inner section.
Images of pandas foraging in the wild, or resting high in the trees, are scattered liberally throughout Giant Pandas, Born Survivors. Many were taken by Zhang, a talented photographer who has a vast library of images and had an earlier best-seller with the book Watch Me Grow, also a collaboration with Bexell, documenting the life of a giant panda, Jing Jing, from birth.
It is hoped that the new book, published by Penguin, will be particularly popular with schools and libraries, ensuring that the world becomes more aware of the plight of pandas as well as endangered species and threatened habitats in general. Bexell says environmental degradation is just as prevalent in her native country, the United States.
In fact when Bexell is asked to take a big-picture view of the state of the planet, it is not a happy, or optimistic, image. The vegan scientist despairs at the greed and avarice that has led to wholesale decimation of forests and the pollution of rivers, lakes and oceans.
She says: "Our population is too big and our consumption habits are quite frankly unethical, especially in developed countries. The more we take, and the more we have babies, we are taking away the chances of survival for every other species.
"We should be thinking about these species we are snuffing out, we are animals too. We think we are all so fancy, and above all that, but we are not. Once we eat everything, we die too.
"Another thing that people forget about is micro-organisms. We tend to think bacteria is not important but it is critically important, worms are important, we take all these animals for granted."
When not doing panda-research stints in China, the Colorado-based scientist can be found as research scholar in residence at the University of Denver's Institute for Human-Animal Connections, or relaxing with her partner, who is also a scientist. Needless to say, most activities the pair are involved in feature animals in some way, shape or form.
She adds: "I met my partner at a fund-raiser for cougars: he is a bat biologist and we spend most of our time talking about bats and pandas. I travel with him to the international bat conferences. A lot of the travel we do is for the animals."
(China Daily 04/05/2013 page20)